C语言 运算符

C语言包含丰富的内置运算符,并提供以下类型的运算符-

  • 算术运算符
  • 关系运算符
  • 逻辑运算符
  • 按位运算符
  • 赋值运算符
  • Misc运算符

算术运算符

下表显示了C语言支持的所有算术运算符。假设变量 A =10,变量 B=20,然后-

Operator 描述 Example
+ 相加 A + B=30
- 相减 A - B=-10
* 相乘 A * B=200
/ 相除 B/A=2
% 取模 B % A=0
++ 递增 A++=11
-- 递减 A—=9

尝试以下示例以了解C中可用的所有算术运算符:

#include <stdio.h>

main() {

   int a = 21;
   int b = 10;
   int c ;

   c = a + b;
   printf("Line 1 - Value of c is %d\n", c );

   c = a - b;
   printf("Line 2 - Value of c is %d\n", c );

   c = a * b;
   printf("Line 3 - Value of c is %d\n", c );

   c = a / b;
   printf("Line 4 - Value of c is %d\n", c );

   c = a % b;
   printf("Line 5 - Value of c is %d\n", c );

   c = a++; 
   printf("Line 6 - Value of c is %d\n", c );

   c = a--; 
   printf("Line 7 - Value of c is %d\n", c );
}

当您编译并执行上述程序时,它将产生以下结果-

Line 1 - Value of c is 31
Line 2 - Value of c is 11
Line 3 - Value of c is 210
Line 4 - Value of c is 2
Line 5 - Value of c is 1
Line 6 - Value of c is 21 
Line 7 - Value of c is 22

关系运算符

下表显示了C支持的所有关系运算符。假设变量 A=10,变量 B=20,则-

Operator 描述 Example
== 判断是否相等 (A == B) is not true.
!= 判断是否不相等 (A != B) is true.
> 大于 (A > B) is not true.
< 小于 (A < B) is true.
>= 大于或等于 (A >= B) is not true.
<= 小于或等于 (A <= B) is true.

尝试以下示例以了解C中可用的所有关系运算符:

#include <stdio.h>

main() {

   int a = 21;
   int b = 10;
   int c ;

   if( a == b ) {
      printf("Line 1 - a is equal to b\n" );
   } else {
      printf("Line 1 - a is not equal to b\n" );
   }

   if ( a < b ) {
      printf("Line 2 - a is less than b\n" );
   } else {
      printf("Line 2 - a is not less than b\n" );
   }

   if ( a > b ) {
      printf("Line 3 - a is greater than b\n" );
   } else {
      printf("Line 3 - a is not greater than b\n" );
   }

   /* Lets change value of a and b */
   a = 5;
   b = 20;

   if ( a <= b ) {
      printf("Line 4 - a is either less than or equal to  b\n" );
   }

   if ( b >= a ) {
      printf("Line 5 - b is either greater than  or equal to b\n" );
   }
}

当您编译并执行上述程序时,它将产生以下结果-

Line 1 - a is not equal to b
Line 2 - a is not less than b
Line 3 - a is greater than b
Line 4 - a is either less than or equal to  b
Line 5 - b is either greater than  or equal to b

逻辑运算符

下表显示了C语言支持的所有逻辑运算符。假设变量 A=1,变量 B=0,则-

Operator 描述 Example
&& 逻辑AND,两边都为true,则返回true,否则false (A && B) is false.
逻辑OR,两边只要有一边是true,则返回true (A B) is true.
! 逻辑否,如果A为true,!A否为false !(A && B) is true.

尝试以下示例以了解C中可用的所有逻辑运算符-=

 #include <stdio.h>

 main() {

    int a = 5;
    int b = 20;
    int c ;

    if ( a && b ) {
       printf("Line 1 - Condition is true\n" );
    }

    if ( a || b ) {
       printf("Line 2 - Condition is true\n" );
    }

    /* lets change the value of  a and b */
    a = 0;
    b = 10;

    if ( a && b ) {
       printf("Line 3 - Condition is true\n" );
    } else {
       printf("Line 3 - Condition is not true\n" );
    }

    if ( !(a && b) ) {
       printf("Line 4 - Condition is true\n" );
    }

 }

当您编译并执行上述程序时,它将产生以下结果:

Line 1 - Condition is true
Line 2 - Condition is true
Line 3 - Condition is not true 
Line 4 - Condition is true

按位运算符

p q p & q p | q p ^ q
0 0 0 0 0
0 1 0 1 1
1 1 1 1 0
1 0 0 1 1

假设A=60和B=13为二进制格式,它们将如下所示

A=0011 1100
B=0000 1101

 -----------------

 A&B=0000 1100

 A | B=0011 1101

 A ^ B=0011 0001

 ~A=1100 0011

下表列出了C支持的按位运算符。假设变量’A’=60,变量’B’=13,然后-

Operator 描述 Example
& 按位AND运算 (A & B)=12, i.e., 0000 1100
| 按位OR运算 (A | B)=61, i.e., 0011 1101
^ 按位异或运算 (A ^ B)=49, i.e., 0011 0001
~ 按位非运算 (~A )=~(60), i.e,. -0111101
<< 二进制左移运算 A << 2=240 i.e., 1111 0000
>> 二进制右移运算 A >> 2=15 i.e., 0000 1111

尝试以下示例以了解C中可用的所有按位运算符:

#include <stdio.h>

main() {

   unsigned int a = 60;    /* 60=0011 1100 */  
   unsigned int b = 13;    /* 13=0000 1101 */
   int c = 0;           

   c = a & b;       /* 12=0000 1100 */ 
   printf("Line 1 - Value of c is %d\n", c );

   c = a | b;       /* 61=0011 1101 */
   printf("Line 2 - Value of c is %d\n", c );

   c = a ^ b;       /* 49=0011 0001 */
   printf("Line 3 - Value of c is %d\n", c );

   c = ~a;          /*-61=1100 0011 */
   printf("Line 4 - Value of c is %d\n", c );

   c = a << 2;     /* 240=1111 0000 */
   printf("Line 5 - Value of c is %d\n", c );

   c = a >> 2;     /* 15=0000 1111 */
   printf("Line 6 - Value of c is %d\n", c );
}

当您编译并执行上述程序时,它将产生以下结果-

 Line 1 - Value of c is 12
 Line 2 - Value of c is 61
 Line 3 - Value of c is 49
 Line 4 - Value of c is -61
 Line 5 - Value of c is 240
 Line 6 - Value of c is 15

赋值运算符

下表列出了C语言支持的赋值运算符-

Operator 描述 Example
= 赋值运算符 C=A + B
+= 先加再赋值。 C += A等价于 C=C + A
-= 先减后赋值 C -= A 等价于 C=C - A
*= 先乘后赋值 C *= A 等价于 C=C * A
/= 先除后赋值 C /= A 等价于 C=C/A
%= 取模后赋值 C %= A 等价于 C=C % A
<<= 左移后赋值 C <<= 2 等价于 C=C << 2
>>= 右移后赋值 C >>= 2 is 等价于 C=C >> 2
&= 按位与赋值运算符 C &= 2 等价于 C=C & 2
^= 按位非赋值运算符 C ^= 2 等价于 as C=C ^ 2
|= 按位或(OR)和赋值运算符。 C |= 2 等价于 C=C | 2

尝试以下示例以了解C中可用的所有赋值运算符

#include <stdio.h>

main() {

   int a = 21;
   int c ;

   c =  a;
   printf("Line 1 -= Operator Example, Value of c=%d\n", c );

   c +=  a;
   printf("Line 2 - += Operator Example, Value of c=%d\n", c );

   c -=  a;
   printf("Line 3 - -= Operator Example, Value of c=%d\n", c );

   c *=  a;
   printf("Line 4 - *= Operator Example, Value of c=%d\n", c );

   c /=  a;
   printf("Line 5 - /= Operator Example, Value of c=%d\n", c );

   c  = 200;
   c %=  a;
   printf("Line 6 - %= Operator Example, Value of c=%d\n", c );

   c <<=  2;
   printf("Line 7 - <<= Operator Example, Value of c=%d\n", c );

   c >>=  2;
   printf("Line 8 - >>= Operator Example, Value of c=%d\n", c );

   c &=  2;
   printf("Line 9 - &= Operator Example, Value of c=%d\n", c );

   c ^=  2;
   printf("Line 10 - ^= Operator Example, Value of c=%d\n", c );

   c |=  2;
   printf("Line 11 - |= Operator Example, Value of c=%d\n", c );
}

当您编译并执行上述程序时,它将产生以下结果-

Line 1 -= Operator Example, Value of c=21
Line 2 - += Operator Example, Value of c=42
Line 3 - -= Operator Example, Value of c=21
Line 4 - *= Operator Example, Value of c=441
Line 5 - /= Operator Example, Value of c=21
Line 6 - %= Operator Example, Value of c=11
Line 7 - <<= Operator Example, Value of c=44
Line 8 - >>= Operator Example, Value of c=11
Line 9 - &= Operator Example, Value of c=2
Line 10 - ^= Operator Example, Value of c=0
Line 11 - |= Operator Example, Value of c=2

sizeof和三元运算符

除了上面讨论的运算符,还有一些其他重要的运算符。

Operator 描述 Example
sizeof() 返回变量的大小。 sizeof(a),其中a为整数,将返回4。
& 返回变量的地址。 &a; 返回变量的实际地址。
* 指向变量的指针。 *a;
? : 条件表达式。 ?x:y; 如果条件为真,值为x,否则为y.

请尝试以下示例,以了解C中可用的所有其他运算符:

#include <stdio.h>

main() {

   int a = 4;
   short b;
   double c;
   int* ptr;

   /* example of sizeof operator */
   printf("Line 1 - Size of variable a=%d\n", sizeof(a) );
   printf("Line 2 - Size of variable b=%d\n", sizeof(b) );
   printf("Line 3 - Size of variable c= %d\n", sizeof(c) );

   /* example of & and * operators */
   ptr = &a;    /* 'ptr' now contains the address of 'a'*/
   printf("value of a is  %d\n", a);
   printf("*ptr is %d.\n", *ptr);

   /* example of ternary operator */
   a = 10;
   b = (a == 1) ? 20: 30;
   printf( "Value of b is %d\n", b );

   b = (a == 10) ? 20: 30;
   printf( "Value of b is %d\n", b );
}

当您编译并执行上述程序时,它将产生以下结果:

 Line 1 - Size of variable a=4
 Line 2 - Size of variable b=2
 Line 3 - Size of variable c= 8
 value of a is  4
 *ptr is 4.
 Value of b is 30
 Value of b is 20
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